Accordatura Zampogna

Come si accorda una Zampogna a Chiave

METODO E TECNICA DI ACCORDATURA

Purtroppo può succedere che una zampogna, nel tempo, non mantenga un’accordatura perfetta. Le cause possono essere diverse: dagli sbalzi di temperatura all’umidità e l’altitudine. Per questo è importante che ogni suonatore sappia come intervenire per accordare il proprio strumento.

In questo tutorial vi spiegheremo la tecnica di base ed alcuni piccoli trucchi affinché ognuno possa cavarsela senza alcuna difficolta. Gli anziani suonatori avevano elaborato un metodo che tutt’oggi si rivela efficace, infatti in passato era raro ascoltare una zampogna scordata nel suo insieme, al di là se fosse intonata in una specifica tonalità. Infatti non si dava molta importanza all’intonazione dello strumento alla sua accordatura.

SEGUITE PASSO PASSO QUESTI SEMPLICI CONSIGLI E CON UN PO’ DI PAZIENZA SARÀ SEMPLICE

ACCORDATURA DELLA DESTRA

  • Prima di tutto è necessario chiudere i due bordoni con gli appositi tappi di cui è dotato lo strumento, in modo da impedir loro di suonare permettendoci di prestare maggiore attenzione al suono emesso dai due chanters: ritta (destra) e la manca (sinistra).
  • È importante avere una buona padronanza nella gestione della pressione esercitata sull’otre dall’avambraccio destro per regolare la mandata dell’aria alle ance in modo da avere un suono costante per evitare ondulazioni a causa delle quali risulta molto difficile ottenere una corretta accordatura.

Fatto questo entriamo nel vivo dell’argomento:

Partiamo da presupposto che non conosciamo nulla di musica e che non ci importa in che tonalità vogliamo accordare il nostro strumento, affidandoci esclusivamente alla nostra capacità uditiva

  • Prendiamo come riferimento la nota più acuta (tutti i fori aperti) del chanter di sinistra.
  • Gonfiamo l’otre, impugnando lo strumento nel modo più naturale possibile e portando lo strumenti alla giusta pressione con l’avambraccio destro, sentiremo finalmente la destra e la manca suonare.
  • A questo punto dobbiamo intonare, se ce ne fosse bisogno, la nota più acuta della ritta (chanter destro) che chiameremo, come illustrato, nota A. Questa nota deve essere identica anche se, con un’ottava di differenza alla nota F. Se notiamo un certa dissonanza tra le due note bisogna capire   se questa nota è crescente o è calante, nel primo caso va leggermente chiuso il foro successivo, nel secondo caso va aperto con l’aiuto degli apposti “puntaruoli”.

Per capire se una nota è crescente o calante è molto semplice: provate ad avvicinare il pollice al foro della nota A ostruendolo leggermente e man mano sempre di più. Noterete subito se l’intonazione va man mano migliorando oppure peggiorando. Nel primo caso vuol dire che quella nota va abbassata di qualche decimo di tono quindi sul foro bisogna intervenire collocandoci un po’ di cera d’api fino a portare la nota alla frequenza giusta, se invece vi accorgete che chiudendo il foro l’intonazione va peggiorando, vorrà dire che il foro in questione va aperto aiutandoci con i puntali.

È importante prendere padronanza con questa procedimento, proprio perché per accordare le successive note basta applicare lo stesso metodo. Quindi andando a chiudere il foro della nota A andiamo ad agire sulla nota B. Questa nota rappresenta la quarta della tonica, quindi un po’ di dissonanza è normale che ci sia, per questo motivo un consiglio che posso darvi è quello di ignorarla momentaneamente e di passare alla nota successiva (nota C). Chiudiamo quindi il foro A e B e proseguiamo con lo stesso procedimento andando ad intervenire se ce ne fosse bisogno, allargando o applicandoci della cera sul foro C.

Immagino che abbiate capito che bisogna continuare ad accordare con la stessa metodologia il foro D ed E con l’unica accortezza che per accordare quest’ultima nota bisogna intervenire sul foro di intonazione situato pochi centimetri al di sotto del foro E.

 

ACCORDATURA DELLA MANCA

A questo punto, dovremmo aver accordato tutte le note della ritta e in più abbiamo una nota già accordata sulla manca. Dando quindi per assodata la metodologia per capire ed intervenire quando una nota non è intonata, per accordare le restanti note della manca, dobbiamo chiudere gradualmente un foro alla volta su tutti e due i chanter e assicurarci che questi eseguano la stessa nota, però ad un ottava di differenza

Il procedimento è praticamente simile a quello adottato per la destra, l’unica differenza è che sulla manca abbiamo gia una nota accordata quella che fin ora abbiamo utilizzata come riferimento.

Stesso discorso vale per il foro F, anche se in questo caso per accordare bisogna intervenire sui fori disposti sul coprichiave (o barilotto). Infatti questi ultimi vanno ad interagire con il foro interno sul quale interviene la chiave.
Ultima nota ad essere accordata è la tonica, che si ottiene andando a chiudere la chiave. Per accordare si andrà ad intervenire, sempre se necessario, su i 2 o a volte 3 fori di intonazioni, presenti proprio sulla campana.

 

ACCORDATURA DEI BORDONI
Una volta accordati i due chanter, passiamo all’accordatura del bordone basso (trum). Come già detto i due bordoni devono eseguire la quinta nota della tonica. Accordare il bordone è molto semplice, non bisogna intervenire con la cera o con i puntali ma basta agire sul calzetto facendolo scorrere in alto o in basso a seconda se la nota sia calante o crescente. Stesso discorso vale per il bordone alto (sc’kantillo). Per avere un riferimento sull’accordatura tenete presente che il trum esegue la stessa nota della manca con i fori tutti aperti e lo sc’kantillo la stessa nota della ritta con tutti i fori aperti.

Pubblicato da: Francesco Sabatini

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39 commenti
  1. Anonimo
    Anonimo dice:

    Ciao a voi tutti, sono un profano della dell’arte per questo non posso discutere o fare dei commenti. Posso solo ascoltare e cercare di fare e vedere di
    Riuscire a recuperare quel che mi sono perso in questi cinque decenni e più. La melodia e la tonalità mi è rimasta impressa, spero che un giorno posso
    Avere una vostra opinione positiva o negativa che essa sia, sarà sempre una soddisfazione anche ad età avanzata.
    Un abbraccio forte a voi tutti zampognari. Da un emigrante, Stefano fortunato

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